To all but the most ardent transit wonks, the phrase "New Starts"
sounds like a motivational tape sold on late-night TV. But those two
words actually represent Washington’s predominant mechanism to pay for
major transit expansions — everything from expanding an existing rail
station to building a new bus line.
Hiawatha rail line is exceeding initial ridership estimates by 58
percent, according to the Twin Cities’ Metropolitan Council. (Photo: MN Public Radio)
its inception in the 1970s, New Starts has provided states and
localities with more than $10 billion. Unfortunately, the program has
forced local planners to clear cumbersome bureaucratic hurdles in order
to prove their projects’ cost-effectiveness while ignoring the
economic-development benefits of transit.
Senate Banking Committee hearing yesterday, some of those planners sent
an urgent message to Congress: Please fix New Starts.
can say with some certainty that if a mayor requested an additional
station for a New Starts project today — a request that would improve
the project through increased ridership and economic development — the
result would be project delay and cost increases," Richard Sarles,
executive director of New Jersey Transit, told the senators.
there was only one senator in the room: Robert Menendez (D-NJ),
chairman of the Banking panel’s transportation subcommittee. Sen.
Charles Schumer (D-NY) left the hearing after reading a brief statement
on the importance of keeping federal transit funding high, providing a
dismaying illustration of Congress’ lack of urgency on transportation
issues despite the system’s imminent insolvency.
low turnout didn’t impede a lively debate, however. Two shortcomings of
the New Starts process were singled out as ripe for reform: the Federal
Transit Administration’s (FTA) intense level of review for even smaller
transit projects and the lack of consideration of economic development
in evaluating funding pitches.
Mariia Zimmerman, policy director at the advocacy group Reconnecting America, said her recent research
has found that several newly built transit lines are 15 years ahead of
ridership estimates issued during the New Starts process. She
questioned the effectiveness of the FTA’s existing ridership-prediction
model, dubbed the Transit System User Benefit, given its poor track
record at determining cost-effectiveness.
"It is interesting
to note that some of these [successful transit] lines would not have
ben funded if rated solely on their cost-effectiveness rating,"
Zimmerman said. Indeed, the Obama administration recently cleared Portland’s streetcars for $75 million in New Starts money that the Bush-era DOT had denied, citing a subpar cost-effectiveness rating.
suggested that Congress give states and localities more freedom to
count private investment, such as the building of lower-income housing
developments near new transit, as a match to help win New Starts money
from Washington. Menendez appeared open to making housing construction
part of the process, noting that Sarles’ Hudson-Bergen light rail network has generated $5 billion on that front alone.
Thomas, president of Dallas Area Rapid Transit, had another suggestion
for bringing New Starts ratings into the 21st century: Start accounting
for the environmental benefits of extra transit. "In addition," he
added, "the cost calculation should consider only the federal project
cost — local sponsors should be able to add project features at their
own expense without harming their cost-effectiveness rating."
Increasing transit’s overall share of the discretionary transportation
budget — that is, creating transit funding outside of New Starts —
was mentioned in written testimony but didn’t get much airtime at the
hearing. As the federal transportation bill moves slowly towards reality, that subject may need to be dragged to the forefront.