Caltrain Service Cuts Could Be Mitigated With New MTC Plan

Flickr photo: ## Kwok##

Communities from San Francisco to San Jose may be saved from much of the expected crippling Caltrain service cuts. A new Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) plan being developed could make up much of the agency’s budget deficit for the next two years, said MTC Public Information Officer John Goodwin.

A large chunk of the coming fiscal year’s $30 million budget deficit could be balanced using short-term funding sources like fare and parking fee increases, employee contributions, diverted capital funds, and collected money owed by other transit agencies, MTC Executive Director Steve Heminger told members at Wednesday’s Planning and Allocations Committee meeting. That could allow Caltrain to lessen the impacts of its expected budget cuts which would slash all but rush-hour train service and shut down up to seven stations.

“It’s late in the game, but the game isn’t over,” said Goodwin. Riders will still likely see “a reduction of service of some sort, but much less draconian than the proposal that has been the subject of public hearings in recent weeks,” he said. Approval of heavy cuts by the Caltrain Board next month seemed imminent without an alternative plan, but just what service would be retained by the new proposals is yet to be determined.

New hope for staving off the funding crisis means the Caltrain Board of Directors may postpone their vote until May. Goodwin said service reductions would still help make up about $10 million in the plan along with fare and parking fee increases as well as efficiency savings from an expiring contract with Amtrak. Capital funds reserved for system projects, including those for electrification and $5.5 million for the Dumbarton Rail project, are also being eyed for operational savings.

A fix for this fiscal year would allow time for the MTC, SFMTA, Valley Transit Authority (VTA), and SamTrans to broker a two-year plan to pursue long-term funding sources to fix the agency’s structurally unstable budget. Payments made to SamTrans on loans to the VTA and SFMTA, amounting to $8.9 million according to the Examiner, could be a part of that.

The agencies would also have time to pursue more permanent measures urged by riders, city officials, and other Bay Area organizations such as a regional gas tax, which could be seen on the November 2012 ballot.

  • There’s only so much they can do at the fare box. But if they stave this off, they’ll need to up their game if they want to get money at the ballot box.

    Starting with overhauling their fare structure to work better with Clipper.

  • I think the best way to speak to the voters of SC, SM, and SF counties would be to cite the reduced congestion on 101 due to Caltain. If they run ads, show pictures of 101 as a parking lot (shouldn’t be hard since it pretty much already is).

    I think Caltrain should overhaul everything to do with Clipper. The fare structure being just the start.

    Maybe the MTC needs to relieve SamTrans of any debt or annual payments to BART. That would be a nice gesture for starters. BART can eat it’s own pile when it comes to the SFO extension.

  • Jon

    Caltrain desperately needs to electrify in order to reduce operating costs. Pulling money out of the electrification budget to plug the operating budget is not the way to solve Caltrain’s problems.

  • Evan

    John — what kind of Clipper restructuring were you thinking of? They got rid of the 8-rides, right? Or is there some weird 8-ride thing via Clipper?

  • So let’s see. In the 1990s Caltrain capital improvements (including downtown extension and electrification) are part of a regionally approved, binding set of MTC resolutions and the Regional Transportation Plan and are used, in a blatantly cynical move by the MTC executive director and his sleaze-ridden heir apparent “mini me” side kick deputy Steve Heminger, to defraud the federal government of $750 million dollars.

    The way this went down is that Caltrain improvements were bundled as part of a regional package, including the Quentin Kopp/Larry Dahms/Steve Heminger fronted contractor welfare project BART to Millbrae, carefully arranged so that the total fictional “package” value was just over 3x the amount these individuals sought to funnel from the defrauded federal government into the pockets of their very very very very special BART contractor friends. The month after the FTA FFGA for BART to Millbrae was crammed down, the Caltrain downtown extension was “unexpectedly” unilaterally cancelled by highly ethical Willie Brown. Oh dear, too bad about Caltrain and about money that wouldn’t have gone exclusively to the BART-controlling PBQD/Bechtel/Tutor-Saliba mafioso operation. So sad. Oh well. Perhaps we’ll fund it next time. Mmmmmmm …. this federal pork sure tastes just wonderful!

    And what’s happening now?

    Well, Caltrain electrification and Caltrain downtown extension and Dumbarton rail and Caltrain frequency improvements and Calrtain grade separations (note: no “high speed rail” involved anywhere) were key front and center marquee projects promised to the voters for the all of the San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara sales tax reauthorisations, were part of the locally and regionally approved and legally binding Countywide Transportation Plans the the Regional Transportation Plan, and on top of that were approved by voters as part of the regional Bridge Toll RM-2.

    But what are the unlimitedly corrupt, PBQD-profit-enriching, inexplicably unindicted regional sleazebags up to in the 2000s? Why, exactly the same thing!

    First, bait and switch on Caltrain.

    Then divert all “Caltrain” funding into the juiced pockets of PBQD (the people bringing you BART to the San Jose Flea Market and High Speed Rail to Los Banos, to a direct engineering/construction mafia bottom line return of an extra $10 billion or more beyond what a less grotesquely corrupt Metropolitan Planning Organization than Steve “personally responsible for the $5 billion Bay Bridge cost overrun” Heminger’s MTC would have required). Caltrain is “promised” that somehow the tooth fairy in the form of HSR will someday fund the money that MTC and VTA have unilaterally taken off the table and given to their very very very very very special BART contractor friends, and that somehow a unicorn will shit rainbows and fund downtown extension and that somehow a magic sustainable funding pixie will wave a wand and fund more than one god damned slow 19th century technology train an hour.

    But in the mean time, we’re taking away your electrification funds and Dumbarton funds and grade separations funds and fleet replacement and modernisation funds and burning them. ($900 million for a one station BART extension to god damned WARM SPRINGS is Heminger and Mike “limitless sleaze” Burns priority.)

    The whole lot should be put up against a wall. The levels of outright, systematic and deliberate fraud by this cast of boundlessly corrupt “public servants” are beyond belief.

  • Jon

    Also, a long term solution which should be considered is to bring San Mateo and Santa Clara into the BART district and rebrand the new electrified Caltrain service as BART. The existing sales tax for BART to San Jose is made permanent in Santa Clara, a similar sales tax for BART is introduced in San Mateo, and San Mateo is relieved of the separate payments for BART to SFO.

  • Evan – the fare structure is exactly the same as it used to be (excluding a few things the programmers didn’t get correct). So you can buy 8 ride tickets. But you can have 8 ride tickets on your card and still not be able to ride! Because you also have to have $1.25 cash on your card for Clipper to work at all. The reason for this is “explainable” but if you need to explain it, it probably means you need a “better solution”.

    Making matters worse in this case, if you put the $5 or whatever onto your card along with your 8 rides, and you forget to tag off once, which happens with alarming frequence due to the misplacement of the Clipper readers (in Santa Clara a reader is hidden behind a trash can), then you will be charged cash for the ride, dropping your balance below the magic $1.25 level, rendering your card useless for Caltrain riding despite the 8 ride tickets on your card.

    Any setup that has holes like this should probably prompt one to “Go back to the drawing board”.

  • What I would do if I ran the world.

    No 8 ride tickets. No Zone upgrades. No Zones. The only products that work on Caltrain are (1) Cash, (2) Monthly Pass.

    Clipper riders get an automatic 15% discount. Paper tickets bought at the station are full fare. Monthly pass is activated at purchase at Walgreens or by tagging ONCE at the station – the system should recognize that there is a pass and simply activate it. Monthly pass users who want to ride beyond their station pair, tag on and off, and are charged the difference between the fare a Clipper rider would pay for the fare for the pass stations, and the fare of their actual used stations.

    Remove zones and go to a distance based fare like BART. Zones are a relic from paper tickets. This removes the anomoly where it is $2.50 to ride from San Bruno to SF, but $4.50 to ride from San Bruno to Millbrae. I know a rider who can walk to San Bruno but drives to Millbrae, paying $30 per month in parking and saving $60 per month in fares.

    Monthly Passes are an incentive to not have to tag on/off. If Caltrain abandoned the passes they would need 4-5x the number of readers.

    MTC has allocated $450,000 extra for their Clipper call center to deal with Caltrain customer complaints. This is putting a bandaid on a tumor. The train ridership numbers are fairly steady but turnover is high, every new customer will have the same issue. Caltrain is using their message boards to remind people of the $1.25 requirement instead of useful announcements. This alone negates any arguments about occasional riders now paying less in fares – an assumption based on occasional riders getting a Clipper Card. And by simplifying the fare structure you attract more overall riders and mitigate the farebox loss as well, and as I said, the ballot box is more important than the fare box anyway.

  • Richard, I’m sure there is some excellent information in there somewhere, but wow that is hard to read.

    I’m with John and I benefit the most from the zone system (SF to RWC is the max zone 1-2 so same as SF to Millbrae, I got a sweet deal). I also know plenty of people who ride to RWC and bike to a destination that would be closer to Menlo Park but MP is in zone 3.

  • thielges

    Evan – In addition to the $1.25 quirk there are other problem with the Caltrain-Clipper implementation of 8-rides that are effectively a stealth fare increase. To summarize, you can no longer benefit from zone upgrades and periodically you’ll pay for a ticket to Gilroy even if you’ve never been there. More details described here :

    I’m coming around to Murph’s proposal to do away with 8-rides altogether and simply give a 15% discount to frequent riders. And if they can protect riders from buying spurious tickets to Gilroy then Clipper-Caltrain is gold.

    Caltrain should think seriously about fixing these problems or risk alienating the segment of their riders who don’t ride enough to justify a monthly pass. I’m a fairly dedicated to alternative transport though have already started riding Caltrain less due to the problems introduced by Clipper.

    In better news: clipperDirect is coming online which should spare former commuterCheck users from the Walgreens runaround.

  • Andy Chow

    I support John Murphy’s ideas of doing away with 8-ride tickets. The policy of granting every cardholder with a discount is what Golden Gate Transit has implemented in its buses and ferries. It is generally expected that people who own Clipper cards are frequent transit riders, and that granting the discount automatically is a sensible thing to do. Caltrain at most would reduce revenue on people who use Clipper to ride BART or Muni all the time and take Caltrain very infrequently.

    The problem with Caltrain’s implementation of Clipper (as well as Muni and others) is that people still need to select and pre-buy products. Ideally people should only need to put cash (or pre-tax commute dollars) and have the discounts applied automatically. The worst is Caltrain because that you need to put money in addition to cash. On Muni at least people can put Fast pass (with no cash) if people just want to ride Muni only.

  • Definitely agree that zones should be done away with- can’t see any justification for those at this stage.

  • I think John’s recommendation, at least how he originally cast it, was for the 15% discount to go to those who commit clipper cash to Caltrain (“Caltrain cash”). Then Caltrain has its money up front (not MTA, not VTA, not BART), earning interest. There’s no reason for expiration dates, zone specifications, or special minimum balances. Then allow that cash to be applied towards monthly pass purchases, to reduce the disincentive to switch to a monthly pass.

    If you eliminate zones, monthlies would need to go to station-based rather than zone based. For this you’d need to be able to specify the endpoint stations at time of purchase. Then simply charge incremental fare for going outside the pass range. Obviously riders would need to tag on if they were planning on going out of range. If I decide along the way I want to go out of zone I’d then simple run off the train at a stop, tag, then run back on.

  • Aaron Bialick

    Mikesonn –

    “I think the best way to speak to the voters of SC, SM, and SF counties would be to cite the reduced congestion on 101 due to Caltain. If they run ads, show pictures of 101 as a parking lot (shouldn’t be hard since it pretty much already is).”

    They should just include images like this in the voter guide.

  • PRE

    I’ve never understood the value of an 8-ride ticket anyhow, why not at least a 10-ride ticket for a work week of round trips?

    From the casual Caltrain rider however, (frequent BART rider) the Clipper cards have been a great convenience. I no longer have to rush from BART at Millbrae to buy a tcket but can just use the card. They definitely need more tagging kiosks, and every station, BART and Caltrain should have Clipper card machines. It’s criminal that they roll out such a system and then make you find a Wallgreens to buy a card.

  • Travis

    PRE – The tickets were originally 10-rides for that perfectly sensible reason. They got downgraded to 8-rides because the old ticket-cutter machines failed so often (particularly on the last 2 rides).

    John Murphy’s suggestions are great. Now that the system is almost completely electronic there’s less need to break things up into these awkward zones to appease the ticket machine.

  • Andy Chow

    I that what John meant is 15%-off fare for Clipper. I don’t like the concept of committing cash to a transit agency (including the HVD on BART). This defeats the purpose of Clipper and creates barriers to transit integration.

  • jd

    Travis: almost, but not quite. Caltrain did get rid of the 10-rides because of the cutter, but it had nothing to do with cutting the last two, just cutting in general. The 8-ride allowed them to get rid of the cutter entirely, since you have both sides of a ticket, which is 4 per ticket, and you get two of the 4-ride tickets. So this way, you don’t need a cutter at all and just need to get one side of one end of the ticket stamped for each ride. The old 10-rides, the cutter was used to tell the stamper how far down the ticket to cut, since you had 5 rides on each end of the ticket (and on the same side). But if you only have one ride per end of the ticket and per side, then you don’t need a cutter at all since the machine always stamps right on the end.

    Anyway, now that they’ve gotten rid of the paper 8/10-rides entirely, there’s absolutely no reason Caltrain can’t go back to the 10-ride, and I think they should since it is much more appropriate since it is a week’s worth or rides for the vast majority of commuters. 8-rides were done purely to deal with the weird issues specific to the cutter (and I was on the focus group that was created to get feedback on the 8-ride back when it was in the planning stages), and that is no longer relevant.

    Like John said, even though it may be “explainable”, the tagging on/off thing with Caltrain is *terrible* design. It inherently takes advantage of everybody’s easy ability to forget to tag on/off (especially off). Caltrain is not a controlled access system like Bart, so you don’t need to tag on/off to get into/out of the system, so it’s *really* easy to forget, *especially* for monthly ticket holders who only need to tag on/off the first day of the month (1 out of ~20 times).

    If nothing else, there at least needs to be tagging machines *on* the train (and to prevent people from scamming the system, these would only work for those who have 8-rides or monthly passes).

    What really drives me nuts about Clipper is how the system charges you the full fare if you do forget to tag on/off with a monthly. That should be illegal. First, if anything, it should only charge you the zone *upgrade* fare from whatever zone your monthly is for and the end of the line. And if your destination *is* the end of the line, it shouldn’t charge you a damn thing extra! For example, if I have a monthly from zone 3 to zone 1 (zone 1 being the end of the line in SF) and I tag on in zone 3 but forget to tag off in zone 1, how the hell can they justify charging me the full fare when I can’t go any further than my ticket is valid for!

    Further, it’s not the computer’s job to try and figure out who is scamming the system (which is what it’s doing when you forget to tag off and it charges you the full fare) — that’s the conductor’s job! Just like with a paper ticket, the conductor’s need to check your ticket, and if you’re outside your zone, you get fined (or whatever). It drives me nuts that the system assumes you are guilty when it automatically charges you the full fare.

    And there is no reason for monthly ticket holders to be tagging on or off on the first ride. The system should automatically activate the card at midnight of the first day of the month and deactivate it at midnight of the last day of the month; the user shouldn’t have to tell it anything since everything needed was entered into the system when the ticket was bought. Again, like John said, I know there is a reason, but it’s a ridiculous excuse for a poor design.

    Now, besides this issue with Caltrain specifically, my other really big problems with the Clipper Card are:

    1) it is ridiculous that when you add money online you have to wait 3-5 business days
    2) there are no machines at the stations to both add cash (or a monthly, 8-ride, etc) to the card or just to check what is on the card.

    What a *horrible* design! Why do I have go to a friggin Walmart to add value to my card, or wait 3-5 days if I do it online!? We’re Silicon Valley, the heart of the tech movement, and we really can’t do better than this convoluted system? Really?

    The Clipper card has already cost me an extra ~$50 because of forgetting to tag on/off with my monthly or running out of 8-rides and not realizing until a couple days before and then going to add money online, but since it takes 3-5 days it isn’t available in time and I have to blow money on the full fare via a day pass. It hasn’t made my life as a Caltrain user one damn bit easier. Sure, the idea of a common ticket across all systems is a great idea, but this one is *seriously* flawed. We can do better that this.

    I wish the people who designed Clipper would respond to people’s feedback instead of stubbornly insisting on doing it the way that isn’t working, at least for Caltrain.

  • thielges

    jd’s summary reminds me of one of a favorite quote : “Using a computer should be easier than not using a computer” which I think is attributed to Ted Nelson.

    I believe that the root cause of requiring monthly pass users to tag-on at the first of the month is that the Clipper technology is based upon digital certificates which require making a physical connection (tagging on) in order to transfer from the central database to the Clipper card. The advantage of using digital certificates is that it allows Clipper terminals to work standalone if required. For example a conductor can check your ticket in a tunnel when there’s no network access to query the central DB. The downside is the awkward requirement to tag just to transfer the certificate. I have no explanation at all for why the tag-off is required for monthly pass holders.

    Though it is a moot point about the paper 8/10-ride tickets, I never understood why Caltrain didn’t just take the Dutch solution (the “strippenkaart”) to the ticket cutter problem : just require riders to fold their ticket to the right unvalidated box. No cutting required at all and that system has worked fine for decades. You can even buy 20 ride strippenkaarten in the Netherlands. Works great.

    And there really isn’t much of an advantage to the 10 ride bundle matching the needs of a whole work week because those riders are better served by monthly passes. 8/10-rides are useful for frequent riders who don’t ride enough to justify a monthly pass.

    I think that Clipper is hoping that Caltrain riders will get better at remembering to tag off. That’s a reasonable expectation though I doubt that the riding public will ever achieve perfection. Even the most awake and diligent riders will get stung with a spurious charge to Gilroy once and a while.

    Using Clipper loaded with multiple products is like opening your wallet and saying “take whatever you want” and trusting that the system does the right thing. It often doesn’t even if you remember to tag off. And if you forget to tag off, Clipper sneaks into your home 4 hours after you tagged on, opens your wallet, and helps itself to $12.50. You might even be asleep when that occurs. Clipper: the midnight cat burglar.

  • jd


    I think what they need to do is allow monthly and 8-ride ticket holders to tag on while on the train. This machine would not work for day passes (since you could scam the system by waiting until you saw the conductor coming to check tickets to tag on … when you tag on is moot for a monthly or 8-ride ticket). In addition, they still need many more tagging machines throughout the platforms so that most people do not need to use the ones on the train. The ones on the train would only be for when you forget.

    And we’ve both pointed out, there’s no reason monthly ticket holders should ever have to tag off. I know they have a reason, but it’s poor design and I’m sure they can find a way to do it.

    thiegles wrote: “And there really isn’t much of an advantage to the 10 ride bundle matching the needs of a whole work week because those riders are better served by monthly passes. 8/10-rides are useful for frequent riders who don’t ride enough to justify a monthly pass.”

    Good point. However, even though I usually buy a monthly, there are some months when I know I won’t ride for about a week or so, and in those cases it would still be easier to load 3 10-rides than 4 8-rides. But whatever. I just think it’s bizarre because they switched to the 8-ride for reasons due to the cutter, but now that that system is gone, they should go back.

    They really need to make the Clipper machines more interactive not only so you can check your balance (without tagging on/off), but so, if you have multiple items on your ticket, you can tell it which one to use. For example, last week, I had an 8-ride from zones 1 to 3. On the way down the Peninsula, I tagged on in zone 1 and off in zone 3 – no problem. On the return trip, however, I biked to zone 2, so I tagged on in zone 2 and off in zone 1. However, the system charged me for a one-way ticket rather than use on my 8-rides, and this turned out to be more expensive; I wanted to use one of my 8-rides (and I am allowed to since I’m traveling withing the zones for which I bought the 8-ride), but it didn’t give me a choice and forced me into the more expensive option.

    And Clipper people, if you ever read this: turn the volume down on the machines! The whole damn station doesn’t need to know when peopling are tagging on/off. It should just barely be audible.

  • “when you tag on is moot for an 8-ride ticket”

    I have a 1-3 eight ride and a 2-3 8 ride, depending on if I board in SF or take BART to Millbrae. With the machine on board, I could wait until Millbrae to tag if there were no conductors checking.

    A bigger issue with fare readers on the train is that they would not be hot wired to the internet, so they would need to be reloaded with system data daily. Granted it seems as though the ones on the platform aren’t exactly “hot” given the 3-5 day delay seems to still exist. But it would require new hardware and a person walking around to all the trains.

    8 ride? 10 ride? As I said – the best plan is the “1 ride ticket” – if you have a real Clipper Card, you get the discount. If you buy a ticket on the platform, no discount. A compromise if Caltrain were deathly afraid this would lead to reduced revenue (an unfounded fear as Golden Gate Transit can attest) is to sell High Value tickets that are zone agnostic. That high value ticket can function to take me from Zone 2-3, Zone 1-3, etc… This addresses JD’s concern – though note JD that a one way 2 zone ticket is cheaper than using a ride from a 3 zone eight ride (unless of course your 8 ride is about to expire).

  • jd

    John Murphy wrote: “I have a 1-3 eight ride and a 2-3 8 ride, depending on if I board in SF or take BART to Millbrae. With the machine on board, I could wait until Millbrae to tag if there were no conductors checking.”

    Didn’t think of that. Hmmmmm …. However, I think the number of people that will try doing that will be very slim. I mean, with any system you can scam it if you want. The reality is, very few people would do it because it’s nerve-racking to do that. And if you do it enough, eventually you’ll get distracted and lose track of where the conductor is, and wham, you got a ticket. The conductors could also do a much better job checking tickets. I would say ~1/3 of the time I ride they never check my ticket, especially on non-commute hour trains. I think they should be checking basically every time the train goes into a new zone (for local trains) and for the life of me, I don’t get why Caltrain hasn’t gotten their conductors to be better about this.

    But if they aren’t going to have readers on the train, then they need to do a much better job with the placement of the card readers on the platform. I still can’t get over the number of people on the car I was in the first day of this month who forgot to tag on … I would say 1/4 to 1/3 of the people with monthly passes forgot to tag on. I’m sure it will get better, but this shows the inherent flaw in the design of the system as applied to Caltrain.

    I like your idea of giving a discount if one uses a Clipper card, but I still think it’s import to give people a discount for buying more tickets than less. I think offering a 8/10-ride as well as a monthly with the current discounted fares is good policy.

    John Murphy wrote: “note JD that a one way 2 zone ticket is cheaper than using a ride from a 3 zone eight ride”

    Yeah, I actually figured that out after I posted. I must have been doing some funny math the other night. Whoops.

    Other points:

    – For casual riders who don’t have a Clipper card, Caltrain should let people buy a day pass ahead of time, i.e., buy it the previous day. This would work by having the ticket vending machine default to today’s date so the vast majority of people would just hit “OK” when buying a ticket, but there is an option to enter a different date if desired.
    – The expiration of the 8-ride should be something more like 6 months. Most other commuter rails I’ve seen, the passes are valid for much longer than 2 months, and when I used to use 8-rides (well, then they were 10-rides) frequently, I got bit by that a lot.

  • thielges

    jd – Unfortunately the “null” tag on/off trick doesn’t report the full card balance, just the cash component of the card. Is there any way for someone to determine their complete card balance (including 8-rides) without calling customer service or using the internet ?

    Murph – I just realized that the cheat you describe has always been a vulnerability of paper ticket systems with on-board validators. I’m guessing that the cheat rate is low enough to be tolerable for the system operators. And it probably explains why the ticket inspectors on those systems wear plain clothes.

  • Experimentally – most riders pay, when the conductors check, there are typically no fare evaders. This is sufficient to conclude that most people pay when they don’t check. 1) honesty. 2) a ticket is very expensive, in money, time, or both.

    I’m fairly certain a lot of cars getting checked are not “random” – the conductors have a mental profile on fare evaders and will check the whole car if they spot one.

  • jd

    thiegles: good point regarding the paper ticket versus Clipper ticket. So that brings us back to putting Clipper machines on the train. Although, as John said, there is still the connectivity issue. But I think that, if you can have wi-fi on trains (and airplanes), there’s no reason Caltrain can’t get the readers to work on the trains. And people have been clamoring for wi-fi on the train anyway.

  • thielges

    Clipper doesn’t require a network connection for the most frequent actions of tagging and checking value. So unconnected or infrequently connected on-board Clipper terminals would be able to do everything aside from downloading products that were added via the website. Maybe that’s a reason why on-board terminals would be a problem : monthly pass riders need to tag-on on the first of the month to transfer their monthly pass. This will work on the connected platform terminals but not with on-board terminals, creating more confusion.

    I’m not sure how this works on Muni buses. How does a Muni monthly pass holder who only rides buses load their monthly pass to the Clipper card ? Maybe the on-board bus terminals are synced every night at the bus yard.

  • Maybe the on-board bus terminals are synced every night at the bus yard.



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